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Basic concepts in procedural programming

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A few weeks or maybe even more than two or three months ago I scribbled down on a piece of paper my understanding of the basic concepts in procedural or functional programming. I look it over from time to time just to re-enforce my understanding of it.

Today I decided it would be nice to share this on this blog. I am not saying it is a complete overview, nor that it is 100% correct. It's just my current understanding of the matter so far.

Data storage When writing a program, or just a simple script we usually want to use and manipulate data. Therefore we will want to temporarily store that data so the script can access it easily. Data is temporarily stored in the following ways:
Variables (for single values)Arrays, or lists (for multiple ordered values)Associative arrays, or dictionaries, or hash tables (for one or more key-value pairs) Besides this, I know of concepts of sets and tuples, etc., but the above three are the most basic and are found in almost every program language I…